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Router Bit Glossary

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Router Bit Glossary

Abrasive Routers 

These routers are designed to cut abrasive materials such as tile and fiberglass. Sometimes configured in diamond pattern.


Air Cleaner (Air Purifier)

A machine designed to filter fine dust from the air in a workshop. A blower moves air past a series of filters to capture the airborne dust.


Air Dried Lumber

Lumber that was dried, usually outside, to an equilibrium moisture content with the air it was exposed to.


Aluminum Router Bits

Aluminum router bits are used for cutting aluminum, brass, copper and other nonferrous metals.



A safety feature designed to prevent the tool from catching the wood too deep and kicking back the material, which can cause bodily harm. Look for tools that are BG-Tested, which is a European certification for tools that comply with their strict safety standards. Anti-Kickback is a safety feature on high quality router bits.



A shaft, driven by the tool's motor that turns blades or other cutting tools. This is the shaft of the bit. Above this, the bit attaches to the rest of the router by fitting and locking into the collet.


Architectural Bits

See molding router bits.


Ball End Router Bits

Router bits used to cut channels for pipes or cables.


Ball Slot Router Bits

See Ball End Router Bits.



1. A small rounded raised profile routed on the edge of a work piece.  2.  A traditional decoration often used with a tongue-and- groove joint to hide the gap between the boards.


Bead Router Bits

A decorative profile. This bit is often used with a tongue-and- groove joint to hide a gap between boards.


Beading Router Bits

Router bit used for decorative purposes. This bit cuts quarter-round shapes bounded by fillets. It creates a bead like contour in the wood piece.


Bench Dog

A metal or wooden peg that fits into a hole in a workbench and is used to hold a workpiece in place. The peg can be round or square and sometimes fitted with special springs to hold them in place.


Bevel Cut 

A cut made at an angle through a piece of work piece.


Bevel Router Bits

See Chamfer Router Bits.


Bird's Eye Figure

A figure on wood, usually maple and a few other species. The figure is composed of many small BB size rounded areas resembling a birds eye. The figuring is most common on plain and rotary sawn lumber.


Biscuit Joint 

A type  of glue joint in which an oval shaped biscuit covered with a water based glue is placed in slots cut in the edges of wood. The two pieces are clamped together, and the glue causes the biscuit to swell and create a tighter glue joint.  Sometimes also called a "plate joint".


Blind Hole Routing 

A method of routing in which the bit does not go all the way through the work piece.


Board foot

A form of wood measurement, where one board foot equals the volume of a board 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide, and 12 inches long.


Book Match

A term in veneering, where successive pieces of veneer from a flitch are arranged side by side. A properly done bookmatch will resemble a mirror image of the opposite side.



A defective piece of lumber that has warped along its length.


Bowl & Tray Router Bits

These bits are used for routing solid wood serving trays or flat dishes.


Box Joint

A corner joint made up of interlocking "fingers".



A small finishing nail up to 1" long.


Bullnose Router Bits

These bits are used to carve a rounded edge, often used for the front edge on a counter top.



Bulges and irregular growths that form on the trunks and roots of trees. Burls are highly sought after for the incredible veneer they yield.



1.   A rough edge,  2.  A type of router bit used to cut fiberglass.  3.  A raised ridge of metal used on a scraper to remove wood.


Butt Joint

A woodworking joint where the edges of two boards are placed against each other.


Cabriole Leg

A leg used on Queen Anne furniture. The cabriole leg is characterized by graceful curves and a shape that resembles an animal leg.


Carbide Router Bits

Router bits composed of an extremely hard metal compound. There are various standards of carbide in different hardnesses used for specific materials. Amana Tool uses specific carbide designed for the specific application.


Carbide Tipped Router Bits

Router bits with cutting edges or blades made of carbide.



The body of a piece of furniture with a box like shape. (i.e. a kitchen cabinet)


Case Hardening

A defect in the lumber caused by improper drying. Case Hardening is caused when a board is dried too fast. The outer layers in a case hardened board are compressed while the inner layers are in tension.


Chair Rail 

Originally, chair rails were intended to prevent walls from being dented by the backs of chairs. Chair rails are usually measured to equal the height of the tallest chair in the room. Today it is mainly used for decoration purposes and usually range from 28" to 36".



A beveled cut along the edge of a piece of furniture. (Usually 45 degrees)


Chamfer Router Bits

Chamfer bits cut angles and shapes in the edge of materials. This is a great bit for the handyman wishing to create decorative pieces or edging.



A lumber defect caused by uneven shrinking of the wood during drying. A checked board has splits which develop lengthwise across the growth rings.



A holding device—specifically, a subtype of chuck—that forms a collar around the object to be held and exerts a strong clamping force on the object when it is tightened via a tapered outer collar. It may be used to hold a workpiece or a tool.


Compound Cut

An angled cut to both the edge and face of a board


Compression Router Bits

These router bits are used when working with veneer, melamine or a similar materials. Using double spirals ensures that both top and bottom edges of the material are properly cut and pulled towards the center.


Cope-and-Stick Joint

A method of construction raised panel doors where the tongues of the rails (horizontal) connect to the grooves of the stiles (vertical).


Core Box Router Bits 

Core box bits are used to cut half-round grooves for fluted moldings, columns, millwork, and signs. When used with an edge guide, this bit will also cuts coves.


Corner Round Router Bits

These router bits are used for creating round corners on your woodwork. Used mainly for furniture pieces.



A tool that allows you to drill a hole so that the head of a screw will sit flush with the face of a board.



A concave profile cut into the edge of the work piece.


Cove Router Bits 

Router bits used to carve details in the cove trim. Cove bits may also be used to detail doors, drawers, posts and columns.


Cove Trim

A trim unit on which one edge has a curved radius. Coves are used to bridge the gap between the bottom of the wall and the floor. A cove may also be used to form an inside corner.



In lumber, a piece of wood taken from the fork of a tree. Crotch Veneer is highly valued for its figuring.


Crown Molding 

A type of molding typically used as trim as well as to conceal the joint between walls and ceilings.


Custom Router Bits

Router bits that are made or fitted according to the needs, preferences or special request of a person.



(1)A flat bottomed recessed cut made across the grain of a board. (2)A type of groove joint.



The amount of sag in a shelf, floor, joist, or counter caused by the weight it's supporting.


Door Lip Router Bits

Router bits used to shape pull handles on the fronts of drawers and cabinet doors. 


Door Making Router Bits

These bits are used to make and shape doors.


Double Bead Router Bits 

These bits create two bead shaped contours in the wood piece. Often used on the edges of shelving or narrow molding strips.


Dovetail Jig

Device which secures the board ends being joined by a dovetail joint.


Dovetail Joints

1. Technique for creating a strong joint between two pieces of wood. This is done by carving one or more tapered, fan-shaped tenons into one piece of wood which will interlock with a series of mortises carved into the adjoining piece of wood. This technique is commonly used when making drawers and cabinets.  2.  A method of jointing wood at the corners through interlocking pins and tails.


Dovetail Router Bits

These bits are used to carve the tenons and mortises of the dovetail joint.



A cylindrical wooden pin that is used to reinforce a wood joint.


Dowel Center

A cylindrical metal pin with a raised point that is inserted into a dowel hole and used to locate the exact center on a mating piece of wood.


Edge forming router bits 

For those with an especially skilled hand, edge forming bits help with intricate edging tasks.


Edge guide 

A straightedge that is used to guide tools, such as a circular saw or Wood Router, along a workpiece.


Edge Joining

Smoothing and squaring the edge of a board so that it can be glued up squarely to another piece.


Edge Router Bits 

Edge bits are used to detail the edges of your woodworking piece. Used to soften the corners of tables, cabinets and more.


Equilibrium Moisture Content

When the level of moisture in a board is equal to the moisture in the surrounding air.


Face Frame

In cabinetmaking a face frame is a flat frame attached to the front of a carcase. The face frame is used to conceal the exposed edges of the plywood panels used to build the carcase.


Face Veneer

High quality veneer that is used for the exposed surfaces on plywood.



A piece of wood with thin "fingers" that hold a board against a fence or down against the table of a power tool, usually a table saw or Wood Router.



A straight guide used to keep a board a set distance from a blade or other cutters.


Fiberglass Router Bits

These router bits are designed to trim laminated fiberglass boards.



A decorative wood figure caused by wavy grain. Fiddleback veneer is prized for it's character and often used for musical instruments. 



1. Are flat, square moldings that separate other moldings.  2. Are thin strips in a column between two flutings. 3. Form a concave junction between two adjoined surfaces.


Finger Grip Router Bits 

These bits are used to carve drawer pull handles on the front of drawers as well as cabinet doors.


Finger Joint 

Technique for joining two pieces of wood. Thin wood fingerlike extensions, are cut into the ends of two pieces of wood. The interlocking pieces then form a joint. When glued together, these extensions form a level surface.


Finger Joint Router Bits 

Router bits used to cut the interlocking extensions for the finger joint.


Flat-Sawn Lumber

In softwoods, a method of sawing lumber where the log is cut tangential to the growth rings. Also called plain-sawn.


Flooring Router Bits

Flooring bits are used for cutting slots into wood flooring, inlays and medallions.


Flush trim router bits

They are used to make the edge of one material flush with another, like trim.


Fluted Moldings / Fluting 

This is a design which is made of adjoining, rounded, outwardly curved, channels that follow in a pattern along the length of the molding.


Fluting Router Bits

Fluting bits carve the fluted molding designs into the molding.


Frame and Panel

Also know as "Stile and Rail". This technique is used to create doors, wainscoting, along with adding decorative features to cabinets, homes and furniture.


Furniture Molding Router Bits

See molding router bits.


Glue Joint

A special interlocking grooved pattern that is used to join two pieces, edge to edge, securely.


Green Lumber

Freshly cut lumber that has not had time to dry.


Grooving & Engraving

Produce crisp, clean cuts in wood to create detailed patterns, words, seals etc.


Guttering Router Bits

See Cove Router Bits.


Half-Blind Dovetail

A dovetail joint where the cut does not go all of the way through the board. The ends of a half-blind dovetail are concealed. (see through dovetail joint)


Handrail Router Bits

These bits are for detailing handrails.



A type of manufactured board similar to particle board but with a much smoother surface. A common brand of hardboard is Masonite.



The dead inner core of a tree. Usually much harder and darker than the newer wood.


Herringbone Pattern

In veneering, a herring bone pattern is formed when successive layers of veneers are glued up so they form a mirror image. Usually this pattern slants upwards and outwards, like a herringbone.



The direction a workpiece is fed into a blade or cutter.


Intumescent Recessors

These bits are used to inlay intumescent strips. See also Slot Cutting Router Bits.



A device used to make special cuts, guide a tool, or aid in woodworking operations.



Creating woodworking pieces using an array of joint- making techniques.


Joinery bits 

These bits can be found in just about any shape and size, making them perfect for joining two separate materials together.


Joinery Router Bits

Bits used to carve the connecting, puzzle-like, pieces of the joint-making process.



In slot cutters, the width of the cutting edge.


Keyhole Router Bits

The keyhole router bit is used to cut keyhole shaped slots into plaques, picture frames and other hanging woodworks.


Keyhole Slotter

See Keyhole Router bits.



This is when the wood or material being cut jams the blade causing pieces to be thrown back toward the user.



A design feature that allows a piece of furniture to be easily disassembled by the use of special hardware or joinery.



A thin plastic materiel used to cover a board. The most common use of laminate is for counter and table tops. It is often referred to by the brand name Formica®.


Lap Joint  

Also called a halving joint.  In woodworking, or metal fitting, a lap joint describes a technique for joining two pieces of material by overlapping them. A lap may be a full lap or half lap. In a full lap, no material is removed from either of the members to be joined, resulting in a joint which is the combined thickness of the two members. In a half lap joint, material is removed from each of the members so that the resulting joint is the thickness of the thickest member. Most commonly in half lap joints, the members are of the same thickness and half the thickness of each is removed


Letter Making Router Bits

Letter making bits are used to create letters for professional signs.


Lock Miter 

A type of joint made by fastening together interlocking parts with ends cut at an angle.


Lumber Ruler

A tool resembling a ruler with a handle at one end and a hood at the other which is used to calculate the board footage of a piece of lumber.


Lumber-Core Plywood

Plywood where thin sheets of veneer are glued to a core of narrow boards. Lumber-core plywood differs from regular plywood in that regular plywood is made up of successive layers of alternating grain veneer.


MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard)

1.  Medium-density fiberboard. This is a man-made wood product. It is formed by breaking down softwood into wood fibers. The fibers are then combined with wax and a hydrocarbon secretion to form boards.  2.  A special type of tempered hardboard characterized by a very fine, smooth finish. MDF is used in cabinet making.


MDF Router Bits

Router bits that are capable of properly cutting and carving MDF wood boards.


Miniature Router Bits

Miniature bits are used for a variety of small scale woodworking pieces.



The process of cutting material for an equal angle joint. Most miter cuts are made at 45 degrees so that they will form a 90 degree angle when they are put together.


Miter Guage

A tool that slides in a slot on a power tool such as a table saw, Wood Router table, bandsaw, etc. A miter gauge can be adjusted to different angles and is used to slide the stock past the blade.


Miter-and-Spline Joint

A joint with two mitered surfaces connected by a spline.



Is wood used for making concrete forms.



A decorative profile usually used for trim work, to cover exposed edges or provide decoration.


Molding or Moulding

1. Forming, making or shaping an object.


Molding Router Bits

These bits are used to create decorative moldings and trim.



These are slots, carved into a piece of wood. These slots will interlock with tenons carved into the adjoining piece of wood to form a dovetail joint.


Mortise and Tenon Joint 

A joint in which the tenon, or formed shoulder projection, of one board fits into a complementary mortise on another board.


Mortise Router Bits

Mortise bits are used to carve square shaped slots. Typically used for hinges, lock sets and cutting mortises. 



Also known as Mortise Router Bits.



A thin member forming the dividing units of a door, window, or screen. It is often used for decorative purposes.


Multi-Form Router Bit 

The multi-form router bit is designed to cut a variety of molding patterns, profiles and architectural details.



Wooden or metal strips separating the panes of glass in a sash.


Non-Piloted Bit

A Wood Router bit without a guide bearing.


Ogee Router Bits 

Ogee bits are used to carve an S-shaped curve in moldings and decorative designs. It has a convex at the top which smoothly blends into a concave at the bottom.



A plunging version of Roundover router bits or corner round bits.


Panel Pilot Router Bits 

This bit is used to create openings in panels, windows, drywall, and doors. Often used to trim materials such as mica, veneer and other laminates.



A wall or ceiling finish using pieces of wood or wood- like material.



A type of manufactured plywood that is made from ground up and glued scrap wood. Particle board is very dense, heavy, and flat.


Particleboard-Core Plywood

Plywood that is made by gluing a thin layer of veneer to a piece of particleboard


Piloted Bit 

A Wood Router bit with a ball bearing above the cutter that keeps the bit a fixed distance from the edge of the material being routed.


Pin Router

A Wood Router that is fixed above a table with its bit point down. A pin in the table is aligned with the bit and used to route the workpiece.


Plastic Cutting Router Bits

These router bits are specially designed to cut plastic materials.


Plastic Router Bits

See plastic cutting router bits


Plastic Spiral 'O' Flute Router Bits

Plastic Spiral 'O' flute bits are designed to produce smooth cuts in acrylic materials, plastics and wood.


Plate Joint

A butt joint that is reinforced with a football shaped "biscuit". The biscuits are usually made from compressed pieces of wood, usually birch. When a biscuit comes into contact with glue in the joint it swells creating a tighter joint. Also called a Biscuit Joint.


Plunge Cut 

A cut made in the interior of the work piece that receives another piece to form a joint.


Plunge Form Router Bits

Plunge routers and bits are perfect for deep surface cuts. Ideal for freehand lettering and inlay work. 


Plunge Router

A Wood Router mounted on a spring loaded base. The Wood Router can be turned on and plunged down into the workpiece.


PlyRouter Bits

These router bits are specially designed for cutting plywood.


Plywood Router Bits

These router bits are specially designed for cutting plywood.


Push Stick

A tool used to safely push a board through a table saw or other power tool.


Quarter Sawn

A method of cutting lumber where the annual rings are relatively perpendicular to the face of the board. Quarter-sawn lumber tends to be more dimensionally stable than other forms of lumber, such as plain-sawn.


Queen Anne

A style of furniture that was first made popular in England during the rule of Queen Ann. It was used almost exclusively by early colonial cabinetmakers. The Cabriole Leg is one of the primary characteristics of the Queen Ann style.



An open ended cut made along the edge of a work piece that receives another piece to form a joint.


Rabbeting router bits 

These bits are used to carve a step shaped pattern in the wood.  Rabbeting bits can be purchased in sets. They're most commonly used to notch the edge of your building supplies. They cut vertically and horizontally at the same time.


Radius Cutter

Also known as Corner Round Router Bits.



(1) A horizontal board that runs along the underside of a table.  (2) The horizontal part of a raised panel door.


Rail Router Bits

See Stile and Rail Router Bits.


Raised Panel Router Bits

These bits are used with the stile and rail bits to create a profiled edges on door panels. Raised panel bits are available for both horizontal and vertical profiles.  Raised panel bits are most often used on door panels. They go hand in hand with stile and rail bits.


Rebate Cutters/Rebaters

Synonym for Rabbeting Router Bits.


Round Over Router Bits

Round over bits are used to create rounded edges on tables, chairs, cabinets and other furniture and home fixtures.



To remove excess material. The act of using a router tool.


Router Accessories 

An object or device which enhances the usefulness of the router tool. 


Router Bit

Wood Router bits used for cutting, carving and shaping pieces of wood.


Router Bit Profiles

Shapes left in the wood after cutting or carving the wood with a specifically shaped router bit.


Router Bit Sets

A number of router bits used together to achieve a specific woodworking task. For example the Wainscot Wall Panel Router Bit Set includes a number of router bits used for Wainscot Wall Paneling. 


Router Bits 

Pieces that attach to a router tool, mainly used for cutting and carving wood. Router bits come in a variety of shapes and sizes.


Router Cutter

Pieces of the router tool which cuts or mills the wood. Synonym for router bit.


Router Lift

This device attaches to your router table. It's function is to lower and raise your router tool in relation to the surface of the router table. Your router's motor clamps to the body of the router lift.


Router Mat

A soft piece of material used to grip the wood. This helps to secure the wood in place while routing.


Router Table

The router sits upside down on the table while the router bit protrudes through a hole on the top. This provides a guide fence ideal for panel & rail as well as stile work.


Router Tools 

High speed cutting tools used for shaping and cutting wood.



Machines with a revolving vertical spindle and cutter. Used for shaping the surface of wood.


Rub Bearing

A ball bearing rub collar near the top or bottom of a spindle shaper that is used to keep the workpiece a fixed distance away from the cutters.


Rule Joint

A joinery method used in drop leaf tables where the tabletop has a convex profile and the leaf has a concave cut. The two pieces are joined by a hinge.



(1)The amount of wobble in a Wood Router bit, or how much the bit moves from left to right during use. (2)The splintering and jagged edges left by lesser quality Wood Router bits.


Scarf Joint

A woodworking joint that is made by cutting or notching two boards at an angle and then strapping, gluing, or bolting them together.



To mark with lines or grooves.



The shank is at the end of the arbor and is the part of the bit that locks into the collet.


Signmaking Router Bits 

Signmaking bits are used to make professional signs in conjunction with letter making router bits.


Sliding Dovetail Joints

A sliding dovetail joint is similar to a tongue and groove joint except the tongue and grove are matching dovetails.


Slot Cutter 

A cutting tool used to make slots, rabbets, dadoes, lap joints and tongue and groove joints.


Slot Cutting Router Bits

Slot cutting bits are used to cut slots into the wood.


Solid Surface Router Bits 

These bits are designed to rout solid surfaces used to make: counter tops, floor tiles, bathroom sinks, toilets, bathtubs, showers, vanity tops etc.



The threaded arbor on a shaper that holds the cutters.


Spiral Router Bits

Spiral bits are designed like a drill and are used to make deep cuts to the surface of your wood piece.



A thin piece of wood that fits in the mating grooves cut into two pieces of wood.



A bead or drops of glue that are forced out of a joint when pressure is applied.



Joint method.


Starved Joint

A poorly bonded joint caused by lack of glue



The vertical part of a raised panel door.


Stile and Rail Router Bits

These bits are used for constructing panels and frames. Often used for making cabinet frames and passage doors, stile and rail bits also carve decorative profiles and panel slots into the edge of a door frame. The stile and rail bits come as a set of 2, or as a single bit.


Stile Router Bits

See Stile and Rail Router Bits.


Straight Plunge Router Bits

Straight plunge bits are used for routing straight grooves, rabbets, dados, joints, mortises, trimming material or making a general cut. 


Straight router bits 

These bits are a must have for anyone with a router. These common bits are used for straight down cuts or to form grooves or dados.



Synonym for Straight Plunge Router Bits


Surface Router Bits

These bits are used to cut the top level of a structure. 


Table Edge Router Bits

Used to shape the hard edges of table parts. With this bit you will reduce the visual thickness of the table top, with a detailed edge.


Tack Time

The amount of time it takes for an adhesive to set-up before it can form a bond.


Tambour Door

This door is made using slats--thin narrow flat strips of usually wood or metal. These slats roll up and down a vertical track. Tambour doors are usually found in cabinets and entertainment centers.


Tambour Router Bits 

Tambour bits are used to create tambour doors. 



A piece of wood that has been cut so that it is wider on one edge than the other.



A pattern. Often a template is made of hardboard and used with a pilot bit to route a shape in a board.


Template Guide

A jig mounted to the bottom of a Wood Router that is used to keep the Wood Router on the profile of a template when routing with a non-pilot beating bit.


Template Router Bit

Template bits are designed to make routing along with a woodworking template easy. 



These are tapered, fan-shaped, teeth like, protrusions carved into a piece of wood. These protrusions will interlock with mortises carved into the adjoining piece of wood to form a dovetail joint.


Through Dovetail Joint

A method of joining wood where the interlocking pins and tails of the dovetail joint go through the side of its mating piece.



A T shaped molding used to provide decorative or protective edges. T Molding is inserted into a slot cut in the other piece.


Toe Kick

An indentation designed into the bottom of a cabinet to provide room to allow the user to stand closer to the countertop.


Tongue-and- Groove Joint 

This joint is often used for wood paneling, flooring, parquet and other similar woodworks. The joint is used to fit 2 or more similar objects together edge-to-edge. Each piece has a slot or "groove" cut all along one edge, and a thin, deep ridge or "tongue" shaped on the opposite edge. The then fit together closely. 


Tongue & Groove Router Bits 

These joinery bits are used to create the tongue and groove joint.


Trim Router Bits

These bits are fast turning, used with a handheld trim router. They are ideal for making precise cuts for smaller jobs.  These bits cut precise, line designs on wooden and laminate-covered surfaces.



These bits are used to trim, cut and shape lippings, timber and plastic laminate edges. See also Flush Trim.



A layer of plywood or other manufactured board used as a base material under finished flooring. Underlayment is often used as a substrate to increase the strength and/or smoothness of the flooring.


V Groove Router Bits

These bits cut V shaped grooves into the wood. They are also used for miter folds, signmaking and lettering. 


V Paneling Router Bits

V Paneling bits are used to create V groove paneling, by cutting 2 separate pieces of wood that form a V design when joined together.



The process of patterning with, or as if with, veins.



A thin sheet of wood cut from a log.


Veneer-Core Plywood

Plywood made from three or more pieces of veneer glued up in alternating grain patterns.



Wainscot is a wood paneling décor that covers the lower 3-4 feet of an interior wall. Can be plain, painted or varnished wood.


Wainscot Paneling Router Bits

These bits are used to carve decorative designs in your wainscot wall panels.


Wainscot Wall Panels

Wainscot and paneling add a visually aesthetic wall decor. Paneling is used to cover an entire wall while wainscot stops at the chair rail. 


Wash Coat

Typically uses as the first coat of a finish. The wash coat is used to change the appearance or porosity of a surface


Weatherseal Router Bits 

Weatherseal bits are used to re-groove window and door frames in order to create a slot for insulating inserts.


Window Edge Router Bits 

These bits are used for shaping the edges of window frames and ledges.


Window Sash 

Is the framework in which the glass panes of a window or door are set.


Window Sash Router Bits

Window sash bits are designed to cut sash window frames and glass door parts. This includes: rails, stiles, mullions and muntins.


Wood Router Bits 

Router bits used for cutting, carving and shaping pieces of wood.


Wood Routers

Machines with a revolving vertical spindle and cutter. Used for shaping the surface of wood.



The process of carving, milling, building and creating objects using wood.


Woodworking Router Bits

Woodworking bits are used to shape, trim and cut woodworks such as furniture


Woodworking Templates

These are patterns, or molds in the form of thin boards or plates. Templates are used as a guide for the construction of an object using wood.